Certain medicines normally used in the treatment of indigestion,heart burn, ulcer and reflux can have harmful and adverse effects on the kidneys. The findings developing from two research studies were presented at McCormick Place in Chicago, ILat the ASN Kidney Week 2016 from November 15 -20.

Histamine receptor-2 (H2) blockers and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are generally used to diminish the production of gastric acid. Pietro Manuel Ferraro, MD, MS-PhD (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy) and his associates studied data on 187,330 partakers of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) I and II and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) to detect if these medications enhance the risk of formation of kidney stones. At the onset of the study, these participants were free of kidney stones.

In the course of a follow-up of up to 26 years for H2 blockers and 12 years for PPIs, 3245 patients developed symptomatic kidney stones. After fine-tuning for a number of aspects like race, age, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, intake of nutrients and use of medications, usage of H2 blockers was linked to a 13 per cent higher risk of developing kidney stone and usage of PPIs was linked to a 12 per cent higher risk of the same. In a subsection of the participants, usage of PPIs was linked with lesser urinary excretion of oxalate, calcium, magnesium, and citrate, which are constituents of kidney stones.

According to Dr. Ferraro, the usage of H2 blockers and PPIs is linked to a minor escalation in risk of occurrence of kidney stones. More studies are necessary to approve and validate their findings and to study whether the additional risk is connected to a specific kind of kidney stones like those constituted of calcium oxalate.

In another similar study, Yan Xie, MPH (VA Saint Louis Health Care System) and his co-workers studied and analysed present suppositions that chronic kidney disease that may possibly ascend after using PPIs is secondary to partial recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). The researchers analyzed data on 152,157 participants using H2 blockers and PPIs in the Department of Veterans Affairs national database. It was seen that PPI usage was connected to more than 30 percent greater risk of developing chronic kidney disease or a combined extremity of kidney failure or greater than 50 per cent deterioration in expected glomerular filtration rate, which is a determinant of kidney function, when compared with H2 blocker usage in the inexistence of acute kidney injury.

As per Xie, dependence on acute kidney injury as a pointer of possible detrimental renal events in those treated with PPI is not adequate. Working out on the surveillance in the usage of PPI — even in the absence of acute kidney injury — and attentive concentration to kidney function in the PPI users may perhaps be a rational approach.