Researchers have discovered an astonishing method to decrease the brain damage initiated by head injuries — preventing the immune system of the body from destroying brain cells. According to a recent study in the Acta Neuropathologica Communications, the open access journal, it was shown that a treatment based on immunity, decreased the dimensions of brain lesions in experimentation’s on mice; The authors of the study recommend that if the discoveries are implemented on human being, it may perhaps help in preventing accidental brain damages, and provide protection to sports persons of touching based sports such as boxing, American football, and rugby.
Till now, there is not one efficient treatment to avert or nullify the damage continued after brain injury. The scientists were examining the concept that impacts to the head leads to brain damage, to a certain extent, since the collapse of the blood-brain blockade, let the brain cells get exposed to the immune cells present in the blood and are destroyed by them. The researchers put forward that rats without a significant immune constituent would have a lesser amount of brain damage from accident, and that a particular treatment which obstructs a constituent of the immune system would avert damage.
The particular constituent of the immune system they were functioning on was CD74, which plays a vital role in responding to disease-causing factors in the immune system. CD74 is fragmented into products that befit into the channel of immune response proteins on the surface of cell as part of the sequence of proceedings that triggers T cells –the immune cells that usually attack diseased (or injured) cells in the body. It was supposed that these cells could also possibly strike the brain cells if the barrier between blood-brain is damaged. A particular treatment commonly known as CAP prevents the activation of the T-cells, by befitting into the instigation spot in the proteins and obstructing the contact, signifying that the access discontinues.
This theory was experimented by the scientists with a series of experiments including 32 mice. Those 32 mice were distributed into sets that had separate combinations of: CD74 lacking mice against control mice; an artificial brain injury or anactual brain injury; and a saline injection as a regulator or the CAP treatment.
To analyse the theory that the immune system generates brain damage after an accident, the researchers carried out comparative studies on the size of lesion in CD74 lacking mice, vs. control mice after a real brain injury, using the saline injection. It was seen that the control mice with a completely functioning immune system had bigger lesions, which advocates that the immune system is a factor and a reason behind the break down of brain cells after an accident.
To examine if the CAP treatment diminished brain damage after injury, they carried out comparative study of control mice with an actual brain injury which were administered the CAP treatment compared to same mice administered with the saline injection. It was found that the mice that were given the CAP treatment had tinier brain lesions, signifying that it did decrease the effect of damage caused by trauma. It was also seen that these lesions were as little as those seen in the CD74 lacking mice, which additionally supports the hypothesis that the success of the treatment was because it stopped the immune system from striking the brain.